Tuesday, 12 February 2013

Network Market and its associations

More than four years into commercial service in South Korea, WiBro has yet to live up to its hype, with KT and SK Telecom combined reaching just under 400,000 subscribers at the end of Q2 2010. WiBro has had a slow disappointing uptake so far, in part due poor coverage and a lack of suitable handsets.
KT and SK Telecom have been reluctant to invest heavily in WiBro networks, worrying that this would cannibalize revenue from their costly 3G wireless networks. To counter this reluctance the Korean government threatened to revoke mobile WiMAX licenses and to impose other sanctions imposed if operators withheld on investing what was needed. This threat was taken seriously and operators increased their investment budgets for WiBro.
SK Telecom is now planning to invest a total of KRW300 billion (US$250 million) over the next two years, of which KRW140 billion (US$116.5 million) is set to be spent in 2010 alone. KT has increased its investment budget for WiBro to US$1.075 billion by the end of 2011, from a previous estimate of US$986 million. 
KT has also revealed plans to expand coverage of its WiBro service to 82 cities by March 2011, serving 85% of the Korean population. It expects to reach 1.7 million WiBro subscribers by the end of 2012. The operator is introducing attractive price plans and launching an aggressive marketing campaign. 
The Korean government is taking other initiatives as well to save the future of WiBro. Policymakers are considering requiring KT and SK Telecom to allow other companies to provide wireless services using their networks.

Tuesday, 14 August 2012


Electrical network
Computer network
Biological network
Artificial neural network
Social network
Business networking
Radio network
Telecommunications network
Television network
Universities network

Wednesday, 13 July 2011

Multi-level marketing

Multi-level marketing (MLM) is a marketing strategy in which the sales force is compensated not only for sales they personally generate, but also for the sales of others they recruit, creating a downline of distributors and a hierarchy of multiple levels of compensation. Other terms for MLM include network marketing, pyramid selling, and referral marketing.

Most commonly, the salespeople are expected to sell products directly to consumers by means of relationship referrals and word of mouth marketing. Some people equate MLM with direct selling, although MLM is only one type of direct selling.

MLM companies have been a frequent subject of criticism as well as the target of lawsuits. Criticism has focused on their similarity to illegal pyramid schemes, price-fixing of products, high initial start-up costs, emphasis on recruitment of lower-tiered salespeople over actual sales, encouraging if not requiring salespeople to purchase and use the company's products, potential exploitation of personal relationships which are used as new sales and recruiting targets, complex and sometimes exaggerated compensation schemes, and cult-like techniques which some groups use to enhance their members' enthusiasm and devotion. Not all MLM companies operate the same way, and MLM groups have persistently denied that their techniques are anything but legitimate business practices.

In contrast to MLM is single-level marketing. In single-level marketing, the salesperson is rewarded for selling the product, but not for recruiting or sponsoring other salespeople.